Personality

Extraversion

When I take part in multiple activities, it takes time for me to take it easy and become active. But when I’m familiar with my teammates or partner, I will be talkative. I will be friendly to whom I don’t know.

Emotionality

I will not always be frustrated but anxious. Particularly when face some new things or some challenges. In a team, if I have difficulty to express myself I will lose confident. And most of the time I will believe myself but sometimes I will doubt myself too.

Conscientious

I am a cautious girl and when doing a decision I will think of many things and try to solve all the problem at one time.

Agreeableness

In a team I try to feed others interest and find out win-win method. I will stand in other people’s position to see the problem we meet.

Openness

As an engineer I think artist is also important. I show great interest on art but I am not good at it. But I lack some imagination and it’s the barrier for me to be creative.

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Social Research

Questions

  1. Do you drive a vehicle? Why or why not?
  2. Would you be interested in having an autonomous vehicle? Why or why not?
  3. When do you think the autonomous vehicles will be wildly used in China?
  4. In a car accident of autonomous vehicles, who should be the main responsible people?

1.

1

2.

Among the 10 interviewees, 2 don’t have vehicles, the other 8 have vehicles. And 2 of them have bicycles and the other 6 have cars.

3.

4

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5.

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From the data, it can be seen that most of the interviewees are interested in the autonomous vehicles. They think in the future autonomous vehicles are the main stream of transportation. But still there are some people worry about the safety of the autonomous vehicles. Actually, in China, autonomous vehicles have a big market, many rich people are interested in it. They think autonomous vehicles is the symbol of their status.

The legal issues of autonomous vehicles

The technologies of automated vehicle(AV) develop very fast. Some companies such as google and tesla even manufacture the cars that the driver can sleep or read the books when the car is driving. According to the SAE, these kind of cars belong to lever 3 autonomous car.

However, the law for autonomous vehicle isn’t keeping up with the technologies. On the federal level in the United States, there is very little regulation related to the testing and operation of autonomous vehicles. Since 2013, only two federal bills have been introduced that touch upon autonomous vehicles, and only one has become law.

Actually, the legal issues are difficult to define. Firstly, for the manufacturers, how the law can regulate the quality of the AV. The manufacturers try their best to create more functions of AV to suit for the market, but the regulator must monitor that whether these functions are dangerous to the drivers or the passengers. How to balance the interest between the manufacturers and drivers does not decide yet. But we must know that the autonomous vehicles must meet some benchmarks before they are sold to the mark. Making the benchmarks need both the government and the researchers’ participation.

 

Secondly, when the accident happens, who should take the responsibility. This problem relates to human’s life safety. Because now we don’t have enough law for AV, so we can just use the current transportation law for common vehicles to judge the AV. To find out who is the main responsible person and sentence according to their rate of responsibility.

Actually, in the future, autonomous vehicles are the main stream of transportation. It’s necessary for government to make perfect laws to protect human’s right. But in my opinion, only the technologies is developed, most of the ethnic problems can be solved. For example, the most famous ethnic problem “Trolley Problem”, we don’t know that we should kill one person to save five people or kill five people to save one person. But imagine that if the autonomous can are in lever 5 classification, the AV can deal with this situation easily, it can turn the direction upward. Because the AV don’t need to drive by the pathway. The “trolley problem” is set up by the current technologies. But before the technologies is developed enough, we still need to solve the problem technologies and laws.

http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2016/09/20/426963.htm

http://www.nortonrosefulbright.com/knowledge/publications/141954/autonomous-vehicles-the-legal-landscape-in-the-us

https://betanews.com/2016/10/21/legal-challenges-self-driving-cars/

https://www.brookings.edu/research/products-liability-and-driverless-cars-issues-and-guiding-principles-for-legislation/

 

Case study of autonomous vehicles accident

Case:

Alice buys an autonomous vehicle from Bob, who sells them. The autonomous vehicle has different settings, some more aggressive (where the autonomous vehicle drives faster and brakes harder), and some less. Alice sets the autonomous vehicle to its most aggressive setting. One night on a dark and wet road, Alice hits a pedestrian, Carlos, who was jaywalking. Carlos is badly hurt.
How should we divide up the responsibility for Carlos’ injury?

In my opinion, Alice, the government, manufacturers and Carlos himself should undertake the responsibility.

Alice, the owner of the autonomous car should be the main responsible person for Carlos’ injuries. Alice knows the car has aggressive setting and he set the car into aggressive setting, then the car hurt the pedestrian. All the decisions are made by Alice. As an adult, Alice has his own idea and he can control himself. In the dark and wet road, it should be more careful to drive the car. But knowing that the aggressive setting of autonomous car has the danger for pedestrian but still set the car into the dangerous setting, Alice should take the responsibility for his own decision.

The manufacturers who produce the autonomous car with aggressive setting should be responsible too. As many functions including the monitor of pedestrian haven’t solved, it should not to make the car too aggressive to brake. If there isn’t any law to banned the manufacturers to produce the aggressive cars, the manufacturers may not break the law but they break the ethics to put the pedestrians’ lives into dangerous.

The government should also undertake the responsibility. It is the government who allows the autonomous car to run on the road and regulates the quality of the autonomous car. Before researching the safety and the consequences of the autonomous vehicles clearly and makes the automated cars legal, it’s government responsibility to make policy to keep the safety of pedestrian.

Carlo broke the traffic rule and caused the accident, he should also responsible for the accident.

When the autonomous vehicles have an accident, it very difficult to divide the responsibility now. So the manufacturers should keep do research on improving the autonomous vehicles before sale them to the customer and reduce the accident rate. The owners should know that they must concentrate on the car and get the control of the car quickly in an emergency situation. And the regulators should strictly limit the quality of the autonomous vehicles make more policy for the autonomous cars to protect the right of pedestrian.

The technologies of autonomous vehicles

The technologies used in autonomous vehicles

Cameras: The cameras are used to monitor the traffic light, pedestrians, bicycles and any other moving barriers.

Lidar: The lidar is used to mapping the 3-D topographic within 200 meters around the car timely and accurately. And then the 3-D topographic map will be sent to the computer center of the car.

GPS: It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.

Infrared: The infrared is used to monitor the moving objective during the night.

Gesture recognition: The gesture recognition combines computer science and language technology to control some functions of the automatic car.

The gesture recognition for autonomous vehicles is mainly research by Google. It aims to release drivers’ hands and the drivers can control some functions of the car such as opening the air-condition and music, change the channel of radio and adjust the angle of the rearview mirror and so on. The drivers can set up the specific gesture by themselves. All the gestures will be captured by the 3-D camera installed on the top left corner of the driver seat.

The drawback of the gesture recognition control is how to capture the meaningful gesture. If the driver do some meaningless gesture and was captured by the 3-D camera, the computer will do the wrong operation. Because of this problem, the gesture recognition can’t be used in the crucial function control including accelerating, braking and steering.

Actually, the potential of gesture recognition control is powerful, if the accurate capture of 3-D camera can be improved, the driver can release their hand completely. Although, in the specific condition, it needs the driver to take control of car, the drivers can just use their gesture to control which will cost shorter time and avoid the danger.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared

http://www.ifanr.com/498642

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gesture_recognition

http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=c01jiFmm6P-GbhAfOMA8xEDPhvku0bZxS7tsm5ibtUmOVdhLF-ZAuCcHAnXWa75pMPANDcVSEjCpO4Tebzmqihi3Dp-JQy0L9pQP-BybVN7iATa8RGGd1etgz69tV_0Yj82QXPxbGdqiCf1qxQmYP_

http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-16197664

Introduction of autonomous vehicles

SAE classification system for autonomous vehicles

Level 0 : Automated system gives warnings to the driver but has no vehicle control.

Level 1 : Driver and automated system share control over the vehicle.

Level 2 : The automated system takes full control of the vehicle. But the driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to immediately intervene at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly.

Level 3 : The driver can safely turn their attention away from the driving tasks, but the driver must still be prepared to intervene within some limited time.

Level 4 : As level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety.

Level 5 : No human intervention is required.

The example of autonomous vehicles:

Google Driverless Car was researched by Google X laboratory and the project was led

by Sebastian Thrun. The car can drive itself. The technologies include Lidar system, camera and 3D maps. Google driverless car has done 48 thousand miles road testing in San Francisco and California. But Google driverless car hasn’t put in to quantity production

Tesla Autopilot is a driver assist feature offered by Tesla. The technologies include radar, forward cameras, forward looking side cameras, reward looking side cameras, rear view cameras and sonars. The automated system can control the car fully but Tesla still emphasizes that driver still need to pay attention to the automated system. Actually, Tesla has produce many Autopilot car and sell them to the customer. It means that Tesla not only test the car on the lab but also use them in the real life.

In my position, both Google driverless car and Tesla Autopilot are in the level 3

according to SAE classification. Nowadays, these two types of autonomous cars can be auto-drive including auto-steer and auto-park which means that the level should be higher than lever2. The computer system can control most of the time. But driver’s monitor is still important. Actually, all the road test of these two kinds of car are under the monitor of drivers. Specially, Tesla requires operators to monitor the vehicle at all times.

The application and benefits of autonomous vehicles

Firstly, autonomous vehicles can reduce the rate of car accident. The data from WHO shows that the main reasons that cause the car accident include driver fatigue and drunk drive. The automated system can help to solve these problems.

Secondly, autonomous vehicles can help to reduce the traffic jam. Because of the efficient of auto-vehicles, the number of private cars can be reduced which can lighten the pressure of traffic jam.

Thirdly, autonomous vehicles can help to save energy. The auto-cars can make good use of energy and reduce the waste. Thanks to the GPS system, the auto-car can go to the destination with the shortest time and use least energy.

 

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